Psychological Space Making

Vidler's essay brought to light interesting notions of how urban spaces evolve in there formal characteristics as the human race modernized. Unlike Milgram, who generates an image of the city in a similar way to Lynch, but using psychology more as a method for tapping into mental mapping, Vidler describes how psychological conditions can lend to certain formal manifestations. Though as Vidler's paper expresses, the earliest notion of these conditions - agoraphobia - presents itself in 1871, I wonder if conditions such as this shaped urban spaces before industrial cities began popping up. Furthermore, if modern cities generate both agoraphobia and claustrophobia, I wonder if the automobile was more than just a vehicle for traversing large distances and linking modern cities and networks within modern cities, and instead became a vehicle to mitigate these psychological conditions, preventing the vast spaces or tight spaces that might generate both agoraphobia and claustrophobia. Either way, new technologies and new spaces generate and incite new psychological conditions, see Road Rage: